Universe is Created by Ionocovalency

Yonghe Zhang


   Macroscopic universe originates from micro and macro inevitability belongs to the microcosmic probability. Universe is created by ionocovalency (IC), which is the harmony of the ionic kinetic Z* energy with the covalent environment r.

IC = Z*/r

   The Ionic energy are the intention, the possessive and the expressive instinct originated from the ionization of the nuclear charge Z*. The covalent environment is the boundary condition and the nature laws of kinetic-potential energy conversion and conservation, originated from the Bohr radii r.


The universe has six natures: matter, motion, discrete, continuity, harmony, and circulation. And their six corresponding entities are nucleus, kinetic energy, particle, wave, potential energy and orbital, respectively. And the later is generated from the former. So the matter generates nucleus, the motion generates kinetic energy, the discrete generates particle, the continuity generates wave, the harmony generates the potential and the circulation generates orbital. Kinetic Energy, Discrete and Particle correlate Ionicity I(Iz, Z*, n*); Continuity and Wave correlate Covalency C(rc-1, n*rc-1); Harmony and Potential Energy correlate Ionocovalency IC; Circulation and Orbital correlate effective principle quantum number n*. In light of these considerations, a universe nature mechanism is proposed:


Matter → Motion → Discrete → Continuity → Harmony →  Circulation

 \      ∕                  ∕                   ∕                 ∕         \       ∕            

    Nucleus — Kinetic energy — Particle — Wave —  Potential energy — Orbital

—————  ——————————— —————   ———————       ————

Atomic bound         Ionicity                  Covalency    Ionocovalency      

                                            I (Iz, Z*, n*)            C (rc-1, n*rc-1)             IC                        n*


Chart1. The Universe Nature Mechanism and Ionocovalency



In accordance with Einstein's relativistic mechanics, the mass m of the object and its velocity v has the following relationship:


                                 m = m0 /(1-(v/c)2)½                                                                              (1)


where c is the speed of light, m0 is the rest mass, the laws of motion:


                            F = d(mv)/dt =ma + vdm/dt                                                                         (2)


the speed of macroscopic objects is too small than the speed of light, then m = m0, F = ma.

Therefore, when Discrete is in disharmony with Continuity, the universe lead to the macro, the Basic Law of the universe is in accordance with the classical mechanics of Newton's second law:


                                   F = ma.                                                                                           (3)


When the Discrete is in harmony with Continuity, the universe is resulted in the microscopic and the rules are consistent with the wave mechanics. The macroscopic law is only a special case (v << c) of the microscopic. The macroscopic necessity obeys the microscopic probability, and the Schrödinger Wave Equation has the universal significance:


                            -h22ψ/8π2m - Ze2ψ/r4πє0= Eψ                                                                     (4)


where the potential energy Ze2/r that is formed in harmony of the ionic attraction Ze2, between the nucleus and the electron, with the localization of covalent radius rc is ionocovalency 


                                 Ze2/r = I(Z*)C(rc-1)                                                                                     (5)


where I is ionic function of the effective nuclear charge Z*, C is covalent function of the covalent radium rc. Based on the Bohr energy model:


                           E = - Z2me4/8n2h2 ɛ02 = - RZ2/n2                                                                                        (6)


we have derived the Zhang effective nuclear charge


 Z*=n*(Iz /R)½                                                                                                               (7)


Substituting Eq. (7) into (5), we can naturally correlate the ionocovalency to the quantum-potential      

and get the IC model:


 I(Iz )C(n*rc-1) = n*( Iz /R)½ rc-                                                                                                (8)



Since the total energy E remains constant, the solutions of the Schrödinger Wave Equation must be a higher kinetic energy in systems if where the potential energy is lower, and vice versa. The loss in kinetic energy is compensated for by an increase in the electron’s potential energy. The universe system can follow the ionocovalent potential as the sequence.