Ionocovalency is Confirmed in Hydrogen Atom

Ionocovalency is Confirmed in Hydrogen Atom (*)


Yonghe Zhang
American Huilin Institute


Since the total energy E remains constant, the solutions of the Schrödinger Wave Equation (1) must be a higher kinetic energy in systems if where the potential energy is lower, and vice versa. The loss in kinetic energy is compensated for by an increase in the electron’s potential energy. So the system can be scaled in the potential energy degree.


-h22ψ/8π2m - Ze2ψ/r4πє0= Eψ                                                             (1)


    The Ionic kinetic energy are the intention, possessive and expressive instinct originated from the ionization of the nuclear charge Z *. Nuclear charge Z is the ionizing radiation of independent of position or direction. Thus,  kinetic energy of the electron which feels the nuclear charge Z  in atom has ionic nature of isotropically delocalized ionizing radiation.

In the case of hydrogen atom, as Equation 1 and Figure 1-3 [10] show, as the electron approaches the nucleus, its kinetic energy shoots up toward positive-infinity due to the increase in its momentum and effective velocity, the potential energy dives down toward minus-infinity in order to compensate the total energy E constant. So a harmony is reached in which experiment [11] tell us that the fall potential energy is just twice the kinetic energy, and the electron is at an average distance that corresponds to the Bohr radius. How can this magic happen? It is nothing but the Bohr radius’s magic covalent harmony at which the system has an optimized state of fairly high kinetic energy and fairly lower potential energy, and where the electron has the maximum negative charge on the radius circle (n = 1, 2, 3,…), that is a natural existence with the most probability. And so ionocovalency has the universal significance: “Where there is a natural existence, there is an ionocovalent potential.”       

Therefore, we can define that the natural existence is in an ionocovalent optimized mechanism, which is the product of the ionic and the covalent functions: a potential of the harmony of an ionic force with a covalency of the environmental localization:

I(Iz )C(n*rc-1) = n*( Iz /R)½ rc-1  


            Fig. 1 Probability density vs. radii r


      Fig. 2 Probability density vs. n*


        Fig. 3 Probability density vs. radial probability


[*] Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency, J. Am. huilin. Ins. 2011, 5, 1-11

[*] Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4381-4406

[*] Zhang, Y. 离子共价性J. Am. huilin. Ins. 2011, 5 (B), 1-9离子共价性/


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