Universe nature mechanism and ionocovalency

Universe nature mechanism and ionocovalency [*]

Yonghe Zhang
American Huilin Institute

 

The universe consists of matter and has five basic natures as Chart 1 shows below. The original nature is motion. The others are in turn decomposition, continuity, harmony, and circulation. And their own entities are nucleus, kinetic energy, particle, wave, potential energy and orbital, respectively. And the later is generated from the former. So the matter generates nucleus, the motion generates kinetic energy, the decomposition generates particle, the continuity generates wave, the harmony generates the potential and the circulation generates orbital. Kinetic Energy, Decomposition and Particle correlate Ionicity I(Iz , n*); Continuity and Wave correlate Covalency C(n*, rc-1); Harmony and Potential Energy correlate Ionocovalency IC; Circulation and Orbital correlate effective principle quantum number n*. In light of these considerations, a universe nature mechanism is proposed as:

 


Matter → Motion → Decomposition → Continuity → Harmony → Circulation
   \         ∕            \           ∕             \         ∕          \         ∕          \          ∕             \
     Nucleus —  Kinetic energy — Particle  —  Wave  —  Potential energy — Orbital
————— —————————— ————— ——————— ————

Atomic bound        Ionicity                 Covalency      Ionocovalency
                                I(Iz,n*)             C(n*rc-1)            IC               n*

 

Chart 1. The Universe Nature Mechanism and Ionocovalency

 

When the Decomposition discord with Continuity, the universe is resulted in the macroscopic, the basic law of the universe is in line with the Newton’s Second Law of the classical mechanics: 

a = F/m


When the Decomposition is in harmony with Continuity, the universe is resulted in the microscopic and the rules are consistent with the wave mechanics. The macroscopic law is only a special case (v << c) of the microscopic. The macroscopic necessity obeys the microscopic probability, and the Schrödinger Wave Equation has the universal significance:

 

                                                 -h22ψ/8π2m -Ze2ψ/r4πє0= Eψ                              (1)

 

where the potential energy Ze2/r that is formed in harmony of the ionic force Ze2, between the nucleus and the electron, with the covalent radius rc is ionocovalency,


                                                              Ze2/r=I(Z*)C(rc-1)                                           (2)

 

where I is ionic function of the effective nuclear charge Z*, C is covalent function of the covalent radium rc. Based on the Bohr energy model:

 

 

                                               E =- Z2me4/8n2h2ɛ02=-RZ2/n2                             (3)

 

we have derived the effective nuclear charge Z* [3,4]:


                                                                 Z*=n*(Iz/R)½                                                 (4)

 

Substituting Eq. (4)into (2), we can naturally correlate the ionocovalency to the quantum-potential and get the IC model [5]:

 

                                                 I(Iz)C(n*rc-1)=n*( Iz /R)½rc-1                                   (5)

 

Since the total energy E in Equation 1 remains constant, if where the potential energy is lower, the solutions of the Schrödinger Wave Equation must be a higher kinetic energy in systems, and vice versa. The loss in kinetic energy is compensated for by an increase in the electron’s potential energy. So the system can be scaled in the potential energy degree.

 

 

[*] Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency, J. Am. huilin. Ins. 2011, 5, 1-11  

[*] Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4381-4406

 [*] Zhang, Y. 离子共价性, J. Am. huilin. Ins. 2011, 5 (B), 1-9

 


 

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