The universe follows the microcosm*

Yonghe Zhang

American Huilin Institute


The universe consists of matter and has five basic natures as Chart 1 shows below. The original nature is motion. The others are in turn decomposition, continuity, harmony, and circulation. And their own entities are nucleus, kinetic energy, particle, wave, potential energy and orbital, respectively. And the later is generated from the former.

 When the decomposition and continuous discord, the universe formed the macro world, the basic law of the universe is in line with classical mechanics:

                                                           a = F/m.

When the Decomposition is in harmony with Continuity, the universe is resulted in the microscopic and the rules are consistent with the wave mechanics. The macroscopic law is only a special case (v << c) of the microscopic. The macroscopic necessity obeys the microscopic probability, and the Schrödinger Wave Equation has the universal significance:


                                               -h22ψ/8π2m - Ze2ψ/r4πє0= Eψ                       (1)


where the potential energy Ze2/r that is formed in harmony of the ionic force Ze2, between the nucleus and the electron, with the localization of covalent radius rc is ionocovalency

                                                             Ze2/r = I(Z*)C(rc-1)                                    (2)


where I is ionic function of the effective nuclear charge Z*, C is covalent function of the covalent radium rc. Based on the Bohr energy model:


                                                E = - Z2me4/8n2h2 ɛ02 = - RZ2/n2                    (3)


we have derived the effective nuclear charge Z* [3,4]

                                                                 Z*=n*(Iz /R)½                                         (4)

Substituting Eq. (4) into (2), we can naturally correlate the ionocovalency to the quantum-potential and get the IC model [5]:


                                  I(Iz )C(n*rc-1) = n*( Iz /R)½ rc-1                     (5)


The universe originated from the microcosm, and follows the microcosm. The inevitability of the macrocosm is a part of the probability of the microcosm.


[*] Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency, J. Am. huilin. Ins. 2011, 5, 1-11

[*] Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4381-4406

[*] Zhang, Y. 离子共价性, J. Am. huilin. Ins. 2011, 5 (B), 1-9




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