Everything exists in Ionocovalency*

Yonghe Zhang

American Huilin Institute http://www.amhuilin.com


      The universe consists of matter and has five basic natures as Chart 1 shows below. The original nature is motion. The others are in turn decomposition, continuity, harmony, and circulation. And their own entities are nucleus, kinetic energy, particle, wave, potential energy and orbital, respectively.

     When the Decomposition discord with Continuity, the universe is resulted in the macroscopic, the basic law of the universe is in line with the Newton’s Second Law of the classical mechanics: 

a = F/m

   When the Decomposition is in harmony with Continuity, the universe is resulted in the microscopic and the rules are consistent with the wave mechanics. The macroscopic law is only a special case (v << c) of the microscopic. The macroscopic necessity obeys the microscopic probability, and the Schrödinger Wave Equation has the universal significance:

                  -h22ψ/8π2m - Ze2ψ/r4πє0= Eψ                       

where the potential energy Ze2/r that is formed in harmony of the ionic force Ze2, between the nucleus and the electron, with the localization of covalent radius r is ionocovalency.


[*] Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency, J. Am. huilin. Ins. 2011, 5, 1-11

[*] Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4381-4406

[*] Zhang, Y. 离子共价性, J. Am. huilin. Ins. 2011, 5 (B), 1-9

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