Ionocovalency quantifies Fajans rules

Effective Polarizing Power and Fajans rules [1]

Yonghe Zhang

American Huilin Institute


Fajans suggested the rules to estimate the extent to which a cation could polarize an anion and thus induce covalent character. This qualitative Fajans phenomenal happens to relate with the quantitative IC-potential, the ionocovalency, the effective ionic potential (or the effective polarizing power).




The simple form of the ionic potential considered the valence charge of the ion with respect to its size. The valence charge is numerically equal to the number of valence electrons of the ion. In some cases we may consider the effective nuclear charge Z*[2]. For two ions of the same actual nuclear charge, Hg2+ and Ca2+, the Hg2+ has the higher effective nuclear charge Z* (4.490) and the IC (3.118), it is considerably more polarizing and its compounds are considerably more covalent than those of Ca2+ which has the smaller effective nuclear charge Z* (2.807) and the IC (1.617). So we have melting points CaCl2=772۫. More comparing compounds are listed in Table 4.4 (below) [1].


[1] Zhang, Y. Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4381-4406

[2] Y. Zhang, Inorg Chem. 21 (1982) 3886. 

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